Online Structure Learning Examples

Below we provide structure learning examples in LoMRF, using the OSL and OSLa algorithms -- for further details see the works of Huynh and Mooney (2011) and Michelioudakis et. al. (2016).

Sources from the examples are located in the LoMRF-data project (follow the instructions in Download Example Data).

OSL in Natural Language Processing

We would like to perform an information extraction task, called field segmentation, a real-world problem where the data contain many, relatively small, structured examples in the form of short documents. A document is represented as sequence of tokens, and the goal is to segment the text into fields, i.e., label each token in the document with a particular field. We use the CiteSeer dataset that contains 1563 bibliographic citations. The dataset has four disjoint subsets consisting of citations in four different research areas. The task is to segment each citation into three fields: Author, Title and Venue.

Knowledge base (empty.mln)

We begin from an empty knowledge base that specify only the predicate schema.

Predicate schema:

// Predicate definitions

// Non-Evidence

Mode Declarations (citeceer.modes)

We define a set of mode declarations, a form of language bias, to constrain the structure of clauses learned. Each mode definitions begins either with the symbol modeP or modeF to specify whether it refers to a predicate or function. In this example we only have predicates and therefore function mode declarations are not required. Each mode declaration has a recall number (1st argument), that restricts the number of times the specific predicate can appear in a clause, and a predicate symbol having as arguments placemarkers. Placemarkers can be input +, output -, or ignore ..Finally, symbol # specifies that this argument will remain constant after varabilization.

Mode declarations:

modeP(2, Token(#-,+,.))
modeP(2, FollowBy(.,+,#.))
modeP(1, Next(-,-))
modeP(0, LessThan(-,-))
modeP(2, IsAlphaChar(#+))
modeP(2, IsDate(#+))
modeP(2, IsDigit(#+))
modeP(2, FirstNonAuthorTitleTkn(.,+))
modeP(2, FirstIn(.,+))
modeP(2, LastInitial(.,+))
modeP(2, Center(.,+))
modeP(2, HasPunc(.,+))
modeP(2, HasComma(.,+))
modeP(2, InField(.,#.,+))

Training micro-batches

The training data is composed of ground facts of the input predicates Token/3, IsDigit/1, IsAlphaChar/1, IsDate/1, FirstNonAuthorTitleTkn/2, FollowBy/3 FirstIn/2, LastInitial/2, Center/2, HasPunc/2, HasComma/2, Next/2 and ground facts of the annotation predicates InField/3.

// ... sequence of facts ...
// ... sequence of facts ...
// ... sequence of facts ...

Structure Learning

Recall that sources from the examples are located in the LoMRF-data project (follow the instructions in Download Example Data), the files of this example are the following: * Initiall empty MLN file: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSL_NLP/empty.mln * Mode declaration file: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSL_NLP/citeceer.mln * Training files for online learning: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSL_NLP/training/

Parameters: * Non-evidence predicates: InField/3 * Max clause length: 12 * AdaGrad learning rate: 0.001 * Evaluation threshold: 2

OSL Learning

lomrf slearn -i empty.mln -t ./training/ -o learned.mln -m citeceer.modes -ne InField/3 -maxLength 12 -lambda 0.001 -threshold 2

OSLa in Activity Recognition

In this example we demonstrate how to perform structure learning for activity recognition, using a fragment of the first set of the CAVIAR dataset. We use the same Probabilistic Event Calculus formalism as presented in the Section Quick Start (for details see Skarlatidis et. al., (2011, 2014, 2015)) and an empty knowledge base having only the Probabilistic Event Calculus axioms.

Knowledge base (empty.mln)

We begin from an empty knowledge base that specify only the predicate and function schema, as well as the Probabilistic Event Calculus axioms. We present below the initial knowledge base for the meet fluent.

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// --- Domain definitions
// time: the domain of time-points
// fluent: the domain of fluent, that is composite events (CE)
// event: the domain of events, that is the input simple, derived events (SDE)
// id: domain entities, e.g. persons or objects
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Query Predicates:
HoldsAt(fluent, time)

// Template Predicates:
InitiatedAt(fluent, time)
TerminatedAt(fluent, time)

// Evidence Predicates (closed-world assumption):
Happens(event, time)
Close(id, id, distance, time)
OrientationMove(id, id, time)
Next(time, time)

// Function definitions for simple, derived events (SDE):
event enter(id)
event exit(id)
event walking(id)
event running(id)
event active(id)
event inactive(id)

// Function definitions for composite events (CE):
fluent meet(id, id)

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// --- Probabilistic Event Calculus (domain-independent axioms)
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// When a fluent holds:
Next(t1, t0) ^ InitiatedAt(f, t0) => HoldsAt(f, t1)

// When a fluent does not hold:
Next(t1, t0) ^ TerminatedAt(f, t0) => !HoldsAt(f, t1)

// The inertia of holdsAt, i.e. a fluent continues to hold unless it is terminated:
Next(t1, t0) ^ HoldsAt(f, t0) ^ !TerminatedAt(f, t0) => HoldsAt(f, t1).

// The inertia of !holdsAt, i.e. a fluent continues not to hold unless it is initiated:
Next(t1, t0) ^ !HoldsAt(f, t0) ^ !InitiatedAt(f, t0) => !HoldsAt(f, t1).

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// --- Other domain-dependent rules
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// --- The meeting CE cannot performed by a single person:
!HoldsAt(meet(p, p), t).

// --- Initially nothing holds
StartTime(t) => !HoldsAt(f, t).

Mode Declarations (citeceer.modes)

Similar to OSL, we define a set of mode declarations, a form of language bias, to constrain the structure of clauses learned. In this case we also have mode declarations for the functions.

Mode declarations:

// Modes declarations for predicates
modeP(2, Happens(-,+))
modeP(0, HoldsAt(+,+))
modeP(0, Next(-,+))
modeP(0, OrientationMove(.,.,+))
modeP(0, StartTime(+))
modeP(1, Close(.,.,#.,+))

// Mode declarations for functions
modeF(2, inactive(.))
modeF(2, walking(.))
modeF(2, active(.))
modeF(0, running(.))
modeF(1, meet(.,.))
modeF(2, enter(.))
modeF(2, exit(.))

Training data

The training micro-batches are composed of ground facts of the input predicates StartTime/1, Happens/2, Close/4, OrientationMove/3, Next/2 ground facts of the annotation predicates HoldsAt/2, as well as ground function mappings. For example, consider the following fragment:

// Input events:
Enter_ID0 = enter(ID0)
Enter_ID1 = enter(ID1)
Exit_ID0 = exit(ID0)
Exit_ID1 = exit(ID1)
Walking_ID0 = walking(ID0)
Walking_ID1 = walking(ID1)
Running_ID0 = running(ID0)
Running_ID1 = running(ID1)
Active_ID0 = active(ID0)
Active_ID1 = active(ID1)
Inactive_ID0 = inactive(ID0)
Inactive_ID1 = inactive(ID1)

// Output composite events (fluents):
Move_ID0_ID0 = move(ID0, ID0)
Move_ID0_ID1 = move(ID0, ID1)
Move_ID1_ID0 = move(ID1, ID0)
Move_ID1_ID1 = move(ID1, ID1)

Meet_ID0_ID0 = meet(ID0, ID0)
Meet_ID0_ID1 = meet(ID0, ID1)
Meet_ID1_ID0 = meet(ID1, ID0)
Meet_ID1_ID1 = meet(ID1, ID1)

// Facts

HoldsAt(Meet_ID0_ID1, 174)
HoldsAt(Meet_ID0_ID1, 175)
HoldsAt(Meet_ID0_ID1, 176)
// ... sequence of facts ...
Happens(Walking_ID0, 100)
Happens(Walking_ID1, 100)
OrientationMove(ID0, ID1, 100)
Close(ID0, ID1, 34, 100)
// ... sequence of facts ...
Happens(Active_ID0, 170)
Happens(Active_ID1, 170)
// ... sequence of facts ...

Structure Learning

Recall that sources from the examples are located in the LoMRF-data project (follow the instructions in Download Example Data), the files of this example are the following:

  • Initially empty MLN file: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSLa_CAVIAR/meet.mln
  • Mode declaration file: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSLa_CAVIAR/meet.modes
  • Training files for online learning: Data/Examples/Structure_Learning/OSLa_CAVIAR/training/meet

Parameters: * Non-evidence predicates: HoldsAt/2 * Template predicates: InitiatedAt/2, TerminatedAt/2 * Max clause length: 8 * Evaluation threshold: 1

OSLa Learning

lomrf slearn -i meet.mln -o learned_meet.mln -t ./training/meet -m meet.modes -ne HoldsAt/2 -template InitiatedAt/2,TerminatedAt/2 -maxLength 8 -threshold 1